The 6 literary devices Shakespeare most used for dramatic effect

Many people think of William Shakespeare as the greatest creative writer in the history of English literature (though there are a number of other candidates), and there is good reason for that. His influence on subsequent writers – not only English writers – is far-reaching and profound.

6 Historical Inaccuracies Found In Shakespeare’s Macbeth

Many of us know the history of Macbeth, but few people really ponder the life of the real Macbeth. Were they to do so, they may come across a number of historical inaccuracies in Shakespeare’s play. Here we will consider some of them to shed light on real events that took place in the 11th century, and insights of William Shakespeare on those events that had happened during the period from 1603 to 1607 when this play was written.

An Impact of King James I

As we know, The Tragedy of Macbeth is based on Holinshed’s Chronicles that served as the main source of information for this play. In his work, Shakespeare described events that took place in the 11th century when regicide and state disconnects resulted from the struggle for power between King Macbeth, Macduff, and Duncan I took place in ancient Scotland. However, historical events of that time were significantly influenced by the worldview of King James who ruled the country at that time and was a big fan of theatre. For this reason, many experts consider that Shakespeare’s writing has nothing in common with the real events that occurred in Scotland many years ago.

As it is described in Holinshed’s Chronicles, King James was a descendant of Banquo who was Macbeth’s partner in crime when they murdered King Duncan so the latter could take the throne. As King James I was considered a descendant of Banquo, Shakespeare significantly changed his character by showing him as a loyal and noble man aiming at restoring his good reputation.

Love of Common People

At the same time, murdering the king was a common way to come to power. Although Macbeth came to power by killing King Duncan, he also did a lot of good for people who lived in Scotland at that time. For example, he gave money to poor citizens, established order in his country, imposed law and supported Christianity. People enjoyed his ruling while Shakespeare portrayed him as an anti-hero who committed a crime, captured power and led Scotland through terror. Macbeth ruled for seventeen years that was more than the average ruling period of any other king. He was called “a generous king” that contradicts with the Shakespeare’s description.

Main Characters

Shakespeare’s portrayal of Duncan and Macbeth was not historically correct. Shakespeare described Duncan as a wise, strong elderly king. In fact, Duncan was a young, weak-willed and ineffective leader. Another inaccuracy was that Macbeth didn’t have any legitimate claim to the throne. In reality, he had a claim as his mother descended from the Macalpin clan. Thus, he had the right to inherit it.

Meeting with Three Witches

The play starts with the scene where three witches were waiting for Macbeth and Banquo. According to Holinshed’s Chronicles, Macbeth was visited by three females, the Norns – mythological personages who could change the destiny of humans and gods. However, there is no evidence that he was visited by witches or any other mysterious persons. This story was invented by Malcolm, King Duncan’s older son, to protect his father’s good.

King Duncan’s Murder Scene

Another inaccuracy is tight with the scene when Macbeth killed King Duncan. According to Shakespeare, this scene where Macbeth murdered King Duncan took place in Duncan’s house. In reality, Macbeth killed Duncan during a battle that was an honourable way to die in the XI century. Also, Shakespeare narrated that Macbeth could not sleep after murdering King Duncan. This doesn’t correspond to the reality because the murder of a ruling king was a common way to become a new king. It’s not likely that Macbeth was prone to pangs of conscience. Murdering someone was not an easy assignment, but those who dreamed about ruling didn’t have a choice.

Macbeth’s Death

The description of Macbeth’s death had undergone the biggest change. Macduff killed Macbeth in the play, but this is not true. In fact, it was Malcolm, King Duncan’s older son, who murdered him. After his father’s death, King Duncan, Malcolm escaped to England threatened by death. He spent seventeen years in England while Macbeth ruled in Scotland. When Malcolm returned to Scotland, he used English army to kill Macbeth. However, Malcolm was wrong thinking that he could capture the throne because Macbeth’s followers placed his stepson on the throne. Malcolm killed him later and became a king who ruled Scotland for the longest period if compared to other kings: his ruling lasted for more than thirty-five years.

In Summary

There were many essential changes made by Shakespeare in The Tragedy of Macbeth. Despite using Holinshed’s Chronicles as a main source to write his play, he attempted to change history by presenting inauthentic facts for the sake of the ruling king. Therefore, this play can be used for educational purposes only with amendments and teacher’s comments. Still, some facts subject to debate for many experts as both stories made a great impact on history.


Author bio: Neal Davis – A blogger and a big fan of British history. Those who study history well can differentiate between real facts and fake events. It’s funny, but I found out about the historical unreliability of this event when I was looking for someone who can write my assignment online

Is there really a hidden meaning behind Shakespeare’s poems?

Author’s bio: Eveline Heston is a freelance writer who loves literature with all her heart. She dedicated a lot of her time to researching myths about William Shakespeare, which, among modern American literature, is her biggest passion.

The anterior mention of Shakespeare’s sonnets refers to 1598, when a Cambridge master, Francis Meres, published a critical work named “Wits’ Treasury”. While giving Shakespeare’s work a very high appreciation, Meres mentions alongside plays and poems “his sweet sonnets spread in the closest friends’ circles”.

The following year, the publisher William Jaggard released a small poetic collection “The Passionate Pilgrim”, belonging to him. However, only five or three excerpts from the twenty poems can be taken up as indisputably Shakespeare’s. Anyway, there is an abuse of the author’s name and at the same time a clear testimony that his name was well known to lovers of poetry and could provide any book with success.

Analyzing the text of the sonnets, it was evident that most of them were devoted to an unnamed young man. Later, talking of him in the literature about Shakespearean sonnets, he was labeled “a Friend.” The smaller part of Shakespearean sonnets was devoted to a woman, also unknown. Her mysterious figure has a name of “Swarthy (Dark) Lady”.


A hidden code of the mysterious W. Н.

The most experienced researchers from PapersOwl literally believe that the Friend is the main character of the most of the sonnets. In many occasions, he is identified with Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton. (The initials of the name Henry Wriothesley, when rearranged, form the necessary combination of W. H.). By the way, Southampton was a great fan of the public theater, where Shakespeare was a scriptwriter.

Another candidate is William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, the nephew of the famous aristocrat Philip Sidney, who later became Lord Chancellor at the court of James I. Pembroke was also related to the sonnets writer: the so-called The Great folio – the posthumous edition in 1623 of thirty-six Shakespearean plays – contained dedication to him and his brother Philip, where it was said that they showed “benevolence to the Author.”

There is also a third, less well-known version, according to which the word “begetter” should be understood not as an “inspirer”, but as “the one who owes their appearance”. The sonnets’ appearance, of course. The difference is pretty small, but it may not be about the addressee of the sonnets, but about the man who handed the manuscript to Thorpe. According to Shakespeare experts, they were William Harvey, the third husband of Southampton’s mother, who was not much older than her son. Harvey’s candidacy allows one to explain the fact that many sonnets are not dedicated to a Friend (who, therefore, could not, strictly speaking, be the “sole inspirer”), but the Swarthy Lady. But how then to explain the mention of “the eternity promised by our immortal poet”? And this is the answer: in 1609, Harvey has already married again and his wife was expecting a child; speech, therefore, is about eternity embodied in children (a cross-cutting theme of the seventeen sonnets in the beginning). Supporters of this version figure out that when addressing to Southampton or Pembroke, Thorpe could not use the word “Mrr”; in relation to Harvey, who had the title of Sir, it was possible. The proponents of more common versions argue that the inappropriate “Mr.” was used by Thorpe for the sake of mystification.

The most dramatic pages of the poet’s relationship with his Friend, as they are represented in sonnets, are associated with the appearance of a certain poet-rival.


A hidden code of offense

A Shakespearean naming “Swarthy (Dark) Lady” is due to the fact that his beloved woman, as already mentioned, had dark hair and swarthy skin. This circumstance is important because, as Shakespeare himself explains, only blondes recognized the modern ideal of beauty, and black was treated ugly and, moreover, it was an attribute of evil (which allowed Shakespeare to call his beloved “colored evil” and “dark as hell”). However, she appears in his sonnets not as a felon of hell, but as an earthly woman, to whom the poet gives ruthless characteristics without a shadow of delicacy and, even admitting love, retains a familiar tone. A sonnet 130 is particularly interesting in this respect. It is based on the same idea as the sonnet 21 devoted to the Friend, on the denial of lush metaphors (metaphors, quite complex, Shakespeare’s sonnets abound, but almost always they are bright and original, while banal decorating the poet rejects). If the sonnet 21 does not undermine the romantic “image of the Friend, then in Sonnet 130 is given an emphatically mundane image of the Swarthy Lady, although it elevates her.


A hidden code of the poet-rival

Oscar Wilde believed that such kind of a contender for Shakespeare was Christopher Marlowe, and the drama took place because of the transfer of Hughes to another troupe, with which Marlo collaborated.

The word “begetter” comes from the word “beget” (conceive, be a father) and also can have a meaning of “author.” Such a concept has given grounds for a witty version that under the initials of W. H. the author is referring to himself, “William Himself”. Truthfully, this does not include the words about “our immortal poet” from the same dedication, and in general, from the text, it is clear that we are talking about different people.


The Shakespeare authorship question

The main mystery is still connected to the personality of the author himself – William Shakespeare. The son of a well-to-do artisan from Stratford, who has early got a family, then moved to London, where he became a playwright, actor, and shareholder of the theatrical company – that’s practically all that is known about Shakespeare, the rest is mostly legends and speculation.

The lack of detailed information about the Shakespeare’s life – his education, the circle of communication and literary pursuits – as well as the inconsistency of the few documents that biographers have available gave rise to the so-called “Shakespearean question”. For more than a century and a half, there has been a debate about whether Shakespeare was really the author of plays known to the whole world or, feasibly under his name, was hiding an educated aristocrat of the Elizabethan age.

There are a lot of applicants for the role of Shakespeare. But, nevertheless, it should be emphasized that in sonnets, as mentioned above, the diminutive name of the author (Will, which also means “will, desire”) is played several times; Therefore, if it is not a conscious hoax, only two people can claim the role of the author of the sonnets: Shakespeare himself or William Stanley, Earl of Derby (his initials, WS, by the way, completely coincide with Shakespeare’s initials, namely, Shakespeare’s plays).