‘Now is the winter of our discontent’ opens a quite stunning soliloquy by the young Richard, Duke of Gloucester in the opening line of Shakespeare’s Richard III play.

This line ranks among the most famous and most quoted opening lines of any Shakespeare play, alongside such openings as ‘When shall we three meet again/In thunder, lightning or in rain? (Macbeth), ‘If music be the food of love play on’ (Twelfth night) and ‘Two households, both alike in dignity/In fair Verona where we lay our scene’ (Romeo and Juliet)

‘Now is the winter of our discontent’ soliloquy spoken by Richard, Act 1, Scene 1

Now is the winter of our discontent
Made glorious summer by this sun of York;
And all the clouds that lour’d upon our house
In the deep bosom of the ocean buried.
Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths;
Our bruised arms hung up for monuments;
Our stern alarums changed to merry meetings,
Our dreadful marches to delightful measures.
Grim-visaged war hath smooth’d his wrinkled front;
And now, instead of mounting barded steeds
To fright the souls of fearful adversaries,
He capers nimbly in a lady’s chamber
To the lascivious pleasing of a lute.
But I, that am not shaped for sportive tricks,
Nor made to court an amorous looking-glass;
I, that am rudely stamp’d, and want love’s majesty
To strut before a wanton ambling nymph;
I, that am curtail’d of this fair proportion,
Cheated of feature by dissembling nature,
Deformed, unfinish’d, sent before my time
Into this breathing world, scarce half made up,
And that so lamely and unfashionable
That dogs bark at me as I halt by them;
Why, I, in this weak piping time of peace,
Have no delight to pass away the time,
Unless to spy my shadow in the sun
And descant on mine own deformity:
And therefore, since I cannot prove a lover,
To entertain these fair well-spoken days,
I am determined to prove a villain
And hate the idle pleasures of these days.
Plots have I laid, inductions dangerous,
By drunken prophecies, libels and dreams,
To set my brother Clarence and the king
In deadly hate the one against the other:
And if King Edward be as true and just
As I am subtle, false and treacherous,
This day should Clarence closely be mew’d up,
About a prophecy, which says that ‘G’
Of Edward’s heirs the murderer shall be.
Dive, thoughts, down to my soul: here
Clarence comes.

‘Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent’ Soliloquy Translation

At last, our winter of troubled history has been transformed into glorious summer by my brother, King Edward, and all the clouds that had gathered threateningly above our house lie safely buried in the depths of the ocean. Now we’re wearing the wreaths of victory and we’ve removed our battered armour and our weapons of war and hung them up as decorations. The blast of battlefield bugles have been usurped by the musical accompaniment to the dancing that’s had taken the place of serious military marching. People now smile easily instead of wearing the grim frowns of war. Instead of putting the fear of God into the enemy by charging towards him on armoured horses we’re charming ladies with dance steps to the tunes of seductive lutes.

That doesn’t suit me. I’m the wrong type for sexual games; I wasn’t cut out to admire myself in a mirror. I am badly shaped and lack the looks to feel at ease swaggering in front of a pretty, flighty girl. For me such activity has been curtailed. I’ve been cheated out of good looks by nature; deformed, not fully developed, because of the premature birth that sent me into the world barely half formed, and even then, badly. Nature has made me so ugly that dogs bark at me as I limp past them.

This weak, tedious period of peace bores me: I have nothing to do, unless I want to sing songs about my own deformity whenever I catch a glimpse of my shadow in the sunshine. And so, since I could never fill these beautiful days of peace by being a lover, I’ve made up my mind to be a villain and stir up these idle days of pleasure. Indeed, I’ve already used drunken prophesies, lies and dream interpretations to set dangerous plots in motion to turn my brothers – Clarence and the King – against each other. And if King Edward was as fair and even-handed as I am cunning, false and treacherous, Clarence is going to be locked up this very day because of a prophecy that says that “G” will murder Edward’s children.

‘Now is the winter of our discontent’ meaning & analysis

The phrase ‘winter of our discontent,’ or more commonly, ‘the winter of discontent,’ is widely quoted to tag political and social unrest, whichever season of the year it occurs in because the word ‘winter’ is such a powerful metaphor for a bleak, discouraging period of time, and ‘discontent’ suggests restlessness and a looming threat.

Richard’s brother, King Edward IV, has just put an end to the long war and assumed the throne. The winter of discontent has been transformed into a glorious summer by this son of York, Edward. Shakespeare puns on the word sun/son. Everything seems good now and England is about to embark on a wonderful era of peace, in which people can get on with the pleasures of life.

Richard is sneering at his brother, though, with what is an ironic picture of a transformed England, and he is going to do his best to disrupt it.

There is not going to be any fun for this bitter young man. He bemoans the fate that has made him deformed and ugly. There is no chance for him in the sexual stakes that other young people enjoy. So what is there for him? He consciously decides that he is going to be a mischief-maker and plot and scheme to set his two brothers, Edward and Clarence, against each other and produce another war and a struggle for the throne (which he eventually succeeds in getting for himself.)

The description of Richard in this passage as so ugly and deformed that dogs bark at him as he walks past them, and  his decision that he is going to be a villain, is a good example of how powerful Shakespeare’s texts are. In the History and the Roman plays Shakespeare recreated real historical characters and in most cases his recreations became the accepted idea of what those historical figures were like in real life.

Shakespeare took the broad events in which those characters acted out their lives and gave them characteristics and words that suited his dramatic intentions rather than any idea of an accurate history. And so we see Julius Caesar as an overambitious, vain politician, Henry V as the perfect king but with a disreputable teenage life, Antony as a powerful emperor rendered powerless by a sexual obsession, and so on.

In Richard III’s case, Shakespeare’s Richard eclipsed the reports by biographers and historians. In the play he is one of Shakespeare’s worst villains, a deformed, hunch-back with a marked limp and an ugly face, and a malevolent, scheming personality.

That was our idea of Richard for centuries. However, recently, the real Richard’s body was discovered beneath a car park in Leicester, and it was seen that although he had a slight curvature of the spine, he was not the deformed monster Shakespeare made of him. Moreover, reconstructions of his skull showed him to be a rather handsome man. The play will be performed for generations to come and we will forget the current fashion of researching the real Richard III, and Shakespeare’s version will likley prevail. And of course, ‘now is the winter of our dicontent’ is fixed in the cultural mind and will be quoted millions of times in the years to come.

Watch ‘Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent’ Soliloquy Performed

'now is the winter of our discontent' quote written on purple sunset background

  • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 1 Ramiro says:

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  • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 2 paul radwanski says:

    Um…this translation is not very good. Not for nothing, but ole Rich here is making some serious sexual puns and using very sexual imagery. Grim’d visage war hath smoothed his wrinkled front!! C’mon…Capers nimbly in a lady’s chamber. The army is getting it on now that there is peace!! why the whitewash??

    • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 3 Jaafar says:

      It’s not really accurate to call it a translation – it’s a short summary for those who (unlike you) cannot make sense of the original. The website is deigned for “students of all ages”, so perhaps they didn’t really want to make the sexual references too graphic.

  • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 4 Zoe1951 says:

    I can’t believe the found the body under the car park

  • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 5 Michele Engel says:

    Please note just a small indication of how rich Shakespeare’s poetry is in the first two lines. He and his brother Edward were sons (as in children) of the House of York.

  • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 6 None says:

    I think the point is that his mind has been “made up” for him.

  • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 7 Katie says:

    There is no analysis though…

  • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 8 Kellie D. says:

    I find this translation highly accurate in my opinion. I have just begun to read this, and so far this play intrigues me, and I believe this is an acute “translation” of the monologue that I have understood.

  • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 9 paul says:

    Apart from the dumbing down of the sex- which we all know to be integral- it’s a good interpretation.

  • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 10 bumphus says:

    Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent” Soliloquy Translation:
    “At last, our winter of troubled history has been transformed into glorious summer by my brother, King Edward…”
    Wrong, according to my junior year Shakespeare prof. at SCSU, whom I agree with, it means; “Now is the death (or short season, diminution) of our troubles because the heir of my father, the rightful king, sits on the throne…”

    • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 11 rosie says:

      I thought about your interpretation and it makes sense that Shakespeare would use “winter” to mean death – he often does, but after reading the line again and again, and I have to say that grammatically, it doesn’t make sense because clearly, “the winter of our discontent” is the subject and “make” is the verb. Rearranging but not changing the words makes it clearer – here’s a modern word order version: “Now the winter of our discontent has been made (into) glorious summer by this sun of York.” see what I mean?

      • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 3 Jaafar says:

        Bumphus, I have to say I’m with Rosie – and the OP – on this. It makes little sense your way. One season is transformed into another as a result of SoY’s actions. Simples.

  • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 13 Jay says:

    According to the Smithsonian’s T V program, the skelton’s DNA genetically matched Richard’s kin. The numerous wounds on the bones also matched the historical account. The spine was crooked. The forensic bust made from the skull was strikingly similar to the painted portrait. The conclusion drawn from the results of the numerous scientific probes involved stated that the skeletal remains are probably those of Richard III.

  • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 14 Wilkey says:

    Hi! I have just come onto your web site to look at the speech for school research and it is a lot longer than what i thought it was going to be. but i will definatly keep using this site

    • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 15 Bob says:

      He just explicates the soliloquy word for word, it can’t be any shorter than so. This is the best thing I’ve found on the internet. Some people cannot be appeased.

  • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 16 Jimmie says:

    Pretty! This was an incredibly wonderful article.

    Thank you for supplying this information.

  • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 17 Contractions of Fate says:

    I always thought it was “…this son of York”, meaning Richard of Gloucester’s brother, not
    “…this sun of York”.

    • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 18 andrew hockley says:

      Its both. Winter/Sun no chid/son etc….

    • 'Now Is The Winter Of Our Discontent' Soliloquy Analysis 19 David says:

      It’s an awesomely clever pun! The “winter of our discontent” (The Wars of the Roses, which they’ve just won) has been warmed by the “sun” of York (his family). But Richard and his brothers, sons of Richard Duke of York, were known as the “sons of York.” To add to this, prior to the Battle of Towton (Edward’s first decisive victory, occurring several decades before this play took place), he was said to have seen an optical illusion in the sky, namely he saw three suns in the sky and related it to him and his two brothers as the “sons of York.”